Everything in Ruby is an object. The Ruby interpreter runs every line of code you write in the context of an object. The
self keyword points to this object.
Here are the four important rules to keep in mind with the
- Only one object can be
selfat a given time.
selfis constantly changing as a program executes.
- When you call a method, the receiver of that method (i.e. the object on which you called the method) becomes
- All methods without an explicit receiver are called on
Here are the different forms
self can take, depending on where it's used.
At the top level,
self points to the
main object, which is an instance of
As soon as a Ruby program starts, the Ruby interpreter creates an object called
main, and all subsequent code is executed in the context of this object.
puts self # main puts self.class # Object
This context is also called top-level context.
Inside a Class or Module
Ruby lets you run any code inside the class or module definition, where the role of
self is taken by the class or module itself.
class Language puts self # Language end module Maths puts self # Maths end
Inside a Class Method
The class method runs in the context of the class, not its instance. The class itself 'owns' that method.
In a class method,
self points to the class.
class Language def self.run puts self # Language end end
It works similarly for a module's class methods.
module Maths def self.calculate puts self # Maths end end
Inside an Instance Method
All instance methods belong to the instance. Hence,
self points to the specific instance of the class.
class Language def compile puts self # #<Language:0x00007fc7c191c9f0> end end ruby = Language.new ruby.compile
When you call a method, Ruby looks up the method in the object's ancestor chain and then executes the method with the receiver as
Inside a Module (Mixin) Method
Modules are one of Ruby's coolest features. They're somewhat similar to classes: they hold methods. However, you can't instantiate them directly. Modules let you mix these methods into another class (hence the word mixin💡).
When you include a module into a class, i.e. (mix in the module's methods as instance methods), the
self object in that method points to the instance of that class.
module Task def execute puts self # #<Project:0x0000000107fdce30> end end class Project include Task end p = Project.new p.execute
When you extend a module into a class, i.e. (mix in the module's methods as class methods), the
self object in that method points to the class.
module Task def execute puts self # Client end end class Client extend Task end Client.execute
So that was a brief overview of how the
self keyword works in Ruby. Understanding it will give you new powers to wield in your Rails apps.
I hope you found this article useful and that you learned something new. If you have any questions or feedback, please send me an email. I look forward to hearing from you.
Please subscribe to my blog below if you'd like to receive future articles directly in your email. If you're already a subscriber, THANK YOU 🙏